Turkish authorities have rounded up some 3,000 suspected military plotters and ordered the detention of thousands of judges after thwarting a coup by a faction of armed forces who tried to seize power on Friday using tanks and attack helicopters. Nearly a similar number of judges and prosecutors have been dismissed.
The US has warned Turkey against public insinuations of American involvement in a failed military coup, saying such claims were utterly false and harmful to their relations.
Erdogan has pinned the blame on Gulen, an erstwhile ally he accuses of running a "parallel state", and called on Obama to extradite the reclusive preacher to face justice.
This view was echoed by Ayrault's Austrian counterpart, Sebastian Kurz, who said Erdogan should not "misuse" the coup as "a carte blanche to do whatever he wants". Explosions and gunfire erupted throughout the night. It quickly became clear, though, that the military was not united in the effort to overthrow the government.
US President Barack Obama expressed support for Turkey's government and called on all sides to avoid action that would lead to further violence or instability. Government officials say at least 104 conspirators were killed.
The coup saw 181 people killed around the country. He has shaken up the government, cracked down on dissidents, restricted the news media and renewed fighting with Kurdish rebels.
But Saturday afternoon, when tensions eased, an atmosphere of celebration broke around as Turks answered official calls to rally to protect Turkish democracy.
Turks gather on Taksim Square in Istanbul.
"We are here for democracy, so the country lasts", retired soldier Nusret Tuzak said in Ankara.
Istanbul authorities have sought to get life back to normal, resuming service at Ataturk International Airport, which was shut down by the plotters.
Meanwhile, Turkish Airlines said it has cancelled 196 domestic and worldwide flights in and out of Istanbul due to disruptions in air traffic brought on by the attempted coup.
Two generals are understood to have been arrested in the government's spree, targeting those involved in the coup.
Brigadier air force general Bekir Ercan Van was detained along with over a dozen lower ranking officers on Saturday at the Incirlik air force base in turkey's southern Adana province, newspapers including the Hurriyet daily said.
"There is a slight chance, there is a possibility that it could be a staged coup", Gulen told reporters through a translator in Pennsylvania, where he resides. He criticised Erdogan's government.
"Government should be won through a process of free and fair elections, not force", he said. Prayers were read simultaneously from Turkey's 85,000 mosques at noon to honor those who died in an attempted military coup. Gulen denies the charges.
An unnamed Turkish official thanked Israel for its support during the uncertain hours of the attempt, voicing Turkey's appreciation for Israel's "messages" as the bid unfolded, according to a senior Israeli official.
Adding that they will be in contact with Turkey's opposition parties to reach a position of capital punishment, he said: "We will not delay this decision for long". Should he see this as an opportunity to clamp down on critics in a manner deemed imprudent, it would serve only to fray the very virtues that people came out to support and defend in those early hours of Saturday.