The reaction to the Pence choice from Republican officials was overwhelmingly positive - no small feat for Mr Trump, given how polarising he has been within his own party.
The two will make their first joint appearance Saturday in NY.
Trump opponents among the convention delegates had hoped to get 28 votes for the resolution, which would have been enough to force a vote by the full convention on a minority report from the rules committee.
He has also apparently been even more critical of Trump in private.
That's according to a Republican with direct knowledge of the process, who spoke Friday on condition of anonymity because the person was not authorized to publicly discuss the details of Trump's search for a running mate.
Another position that Christie has been rumored to be interested in is the position of attorney general.
"We need someone who is steady and secure in his principles, someone who can cut through the noise and make a compelling case for conservatism", added House Speaker Paul Ryan. He challenged John Boehner for the top position in the minority Republican caucus in 2006, and was badly beaten, before winning the third-highest position, as chairman of the House Republican Conference. It can be viewed in the embedded YouTube player via Right Side Broadcasting.
As for the Iraq war, "that's for historians to debate", but both he and Trump "are in strong agreement is that Barack Obama's precipitous withdrawal from Iraq created a vacuum in which ISIS was created".
"This does not reflect the future I want for America - it's a terrifying prospect we'll be working all-out to stop", the email said.
By 2012, however, as Republicans aligned with the Tea Party faction became dominant, Pence found himself outflanked on the right. He was widely mentioned as a possible contender for the 2016 nomination but ultimately decided against it. He's well-regarded by evangelical Christians, particularly after signing a law that critics said would allow businesses to deny service to gay people for religious reasons.
But he has also presided over Indiana's improving economy and plummeting unemployment rate, which Republicans credit to the state's low taxes, limited regulation and pro-business climate. Trump has spent little time talking about social issues and has instead focused on immigration and economic issues.
The former congressman also is a proven fundraiser with close ties to billionaire industrialists David and Charles Koch and their network of wealthy donors, many of whom have been dismissive of Trump. Matt Lloyd, his deputy chief of staff, was director of communications for Koch Industries, the brothers' principal holding company.
Republican presidential candidate Donald Trump has bragged he could get a billion-dollar campaign loan simply by walking into a bank.
Trump had faced a midday Friday deadline to announce Pence because the governor had to declare by then whether he would be on the ballot in his home state for re-election.
The Los Angeles LGBT Center issued a statement describing Pence as a "virulently anti-LGBT politician" whose selection 'sends a loud and clear message that should anger and frighten the LGBT community, our allies, and anyone who believes in the promise of a free and equal nation'.
The Cleveland conclave and the Democratic Party Convention the following week in Philadelphia have been given the status of special national security event by the federal government for the first time, and security will be heightened, said Republican Party spokesman Sean Spicer.