Some Turkish officials have run with the idea of a global conspiracy, accusing the United States of partnering with Gulen to orchestrate the coup.
The top United Nations human rights official urged Turkey on Tuesday to uphold the rule of law in the wake of the failed coup and voiced "serious alarm" at the mass suspension of judges and prosecutors.
Prime Minister Binali Yildirim, meanwhile, reflected the triumphant mood of authorities. Erdogan blames the failed coup on Gulen and demanded his extradition from the United States. Toner said it was understandable to hear "fiery rhetoric, passionate rhetoric" after such a tumultuous 48 hours, but that US officials had cautioned Turkey to avoid language that escalates tensions.
Security forces in Turkey this morning carried out new raids against suspected plotters of the botched coup, as global concern grew over the scale of the crackdown.
As the total number of military and civilians detained, arrested or suspended reached more than 15,000, Secretary of State John F. Kerry "firmly" urged Turkey to maintain its democratic institutions and the rule of law. German Chancellor Angela Merkel said reinstating it would "in no way" be compatible with Turkey's goal of European Union membership.
Howard Eissenstat of St Lawrence University told Al Jazeera the president doesn't appear concerned about following the dictates of the West post-coup attempt.
US Secretary of State John Kerry and European Union foreign policy chief Federica Mogherini said in Brussels that Friday's attempted putsch was "no excuse" for excessive action, as Turkish authorities said they had arrested over 7,500 people.
At the same gathering, the EU's foreign policy chief, Federica Mogherini, was asked about Erdogan's recent suggestion that Turkey may reinstate the death penalty, a measure the country abolished in 2004 as a part of its effort to join the EU.
Turkey parliament "evacuated" Earlier, MPs were reportedly told to evacuate the Turkish parliament building in Ankara over an unspecified security threat, according to an opposition politician, reports the Independent.
Still smarting from the coup attempt, the Turkish leadership has hinted its friendship with the USA could be at stake if Washington fails to extradite US-based Islamic cleric Fethullah Gulen, who denies involvement in the coup.
He said he had told Turkey's foreign minister "to make certain that in whatever portfolio and request they send us, they send us evidence, not allegations".
Western leaders have pushed Turkey to follow the rule of law as the massive retaliatory purge adds to existing concerns about human rights and democracy in the strategic North Atlantic Treaty Organisation country. He said Carter had relied on regional USA military commanders to reach out to their Turkish counterparts to provide him with updates and did not make a phone call to Turkey's defense minister to get a firsthand report.
For the fourth night in a row, hundreds took to public squares in major cities, including Istanbul, Ankara and Izmir, in a fresh show of support for the government. Some high-ranking military officials involved in the plot have fled overseas, he said.
Erdogan has long accused Gulen of trying to create a "parallel state" within the courts, police, armed forces and media.
The EU commissioner handling Turkey's membership bid, Johannes Hahn, on Monday expressed concern over the mass arrests following the coup, saying it looked like the government had already decided on a list of people to arrest beforehand. "They're suffering so the people are very sensitive and we have to act very sensibly and sensitively".