Meanwhile the top five cities to live in are Melbourne, Australian; Vienna, Austria; Vancouver, Canada; Toronto, Canada; and Calgary, Canada.
"Of these changes, the majority have been negative (29 in the past 12 months), reflecting deteriorating stability as cities around the world face heightened threats of terrorism or unrest". In the same year, there were reports that only nine murders had been recorded in Vienna, a city of 1.74 m people, with a murder rate matching the national average.
'Although the top five cities remain unchanged, the past year has seen increasing instability across the world, causing volatility in the scores of many cities, ' the report said.
The city topped the annual listing by getting the highest marks for healthcare, infrastructure and education.
But in an environment rife with the fallout from ongoing civil wars in the Middle East, threats of global terrorism, civil unrest and territorial disputes in Asian waters, many cities have seen their livability scores decline.
What the top ranked cities had in common was being situated in relatively wealthy countries with good health and education systems, good quality infrastructure and they tended to be medium-sized, and had low population densities.
Ranking each city out of 100, Manchester scored 88.8, while London managed 87.2 and places 10 positions lower than Manchester on the list. Violent acts of terrorism in many countries including Turkey, Bangladesh, Pakistan, France, Belgium and the US were responsible for changes in some of the rankings. But the ratings are determined by "the judgment of in-house expert country analysts and a field correspondent based in each city" and probably are more objective than a resident might be.
Some cities are improving, though.
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The global trend for declining liveability has become depressingly familiar in recent years as acts of terror in major cities are becoming an increasingly common occurrence.
The ranking of Lagos among the least liveable cities of the world comes amidst a massive revenue drive and huge infrastructure investment by Governor Akinwunmi Ambode. Three other African cities joined Lagos at the bottom rung of the liveable cities, with Douala, Cameroon; Harare, Zimbabwe; and Algiers, Algeria; ranking 132nd, 133rd, and 134th respectively.