China is North Korea's lone major ally, but has spoken out against its missile and nuclear tests and has supported United Nations sanctions. He was the grandfather of the current leader, Kim Jong Un.
Washington has voiced concerns over Pyongyang's nuclear tests, but the North says such launches are an act as deterrence against a potential invasion by the US or South Korea.
A total of 56 missiles of 10 types were displayed, culminating in enormous rockets on articulated trailers and on 16-wheel vehicles.
What has the North Korean response been?
US President Donald Trump's administration declined to name any major trading partner as a currency manipulator in a highly-anticipated report on Friday, confirming a decision to back away from a key Trump campaign promise to slap such a label on China.
"We will respond to an all-out war with an all-out war and a nuclear war with our style of a nuclear attack", said Mr Choe, widely seen by analysts as one of Mr Kim's closest aides.
Amid the fanfare and regalia of its founder's birthday celebrations, North Korea rolled out what appeared to be new missiles - a brazen display as the country ratchets up its rhetoric against efforts to curb its weapons programs.
"It's a signal of willingness to cooperate more on the global stage, especially on North Korea's nuclear program".
The socialist state celebrated the 105th anniversary of its founder Kim Il-Sung's birth, where Jong-un threatened to defeat enemies with 'nuclear justice'.
Trump has warned North Korea and China, its main ally, that if its nuclear weapons program continued to advance, the US would take care of it alone.
The Pukkuksong submarine-launched ballistic missiles (SLBM) were also on parade.
"All the brigandish provocative moves of the USA in the political, economic and military fields pursuant to its hostile policy toward the DPRK will thoroughly be foiled through the toughest counteraction of the army and people of the DPRK", the KCNA state news agency said, citing a spokesman for the General Staff of the Korean People's Army.
The parade, an elaborate display of the state's enormous power, involves tens of thousands of participants, from goose-stepping soldiers to crowds of civilians who have spent weeks perfecting their ability to wave plastic flowers in unison.
A switch from liquid to solid fuel would be important because it could change North Korea's so-called "second-strike" ability to respond to a preemptive attack. Also on display was a powerful midrange missile that outside analysts call a "Musudan", and which can potentially reach US air bases in Guam, as well as a new solid-fuel midrange missile that can be fired from land mobile launchers, making them harder to detect before launch. Recent satellite imagery suggests the country could conduct another underground nuclear test at any time. North Korea has never tested a missile that could cross the Pacific Ocean, and many experts are skeptical of whether it is capable of doing so. "This is in notable contrast to several prior years of asymmetric intervention to resist won appreciation", it said.