In response, Russia's defence ministry said it would suspend coordination with the United States over deconfliction zones and begin tracking coalition jets operating in Assad-held areas west of the Euphrates river.
The American F/A-18E Super Hornet shot down the Syrian SU-22 around 7:00 pm as it "dropped bombs near SDF fighters" south of the town of Tabqa.
The shootdown incident and Russia's response further complicate Syria's six-year war and come as the US-led coalition and allied fighters battle to oust the Islamic State group from its Syrian bastion Raqa.
RAAF operations over Syria have been halted amid fears planes could be fired upon in retaliation for the United States downing an Assad-backed fighter jet.
Russian Federation has been a staunch supporter of Syria's beleaguered President Bashar Assad and has been providing an air cover for his offensive against IS since 2015.
The Britain-based Syrian Observatory for Human Rights says it was extended 24 hours.
"We are going to continue to conduct operations throughout Syria, providing air support for coalition and partnered forces on the ground", said USA military spokesman Col. Ryan Dillon.
"There is every reason to believe that if someone previously had doubts that Russia is taking all the necessary measures to ensure the safety of its aircraft flights in Syria, then these doubts will disappear with the Defense Ministry statement", Sputnik quoted Russian upper house committee chairman Victor Ozerov as saying.
Russia's Defence Ministry announced that it was ending US-Russian co-operation in Syria that had been created to prevent a direct conflict between the great powers. The U.S. -led coalition said it acted in "collective self-defense" of partnered forces.
Russia said its warplanes were flying over Syria at the time of the shootdown and the USA failed to use the existing deconfliction channel between US military officers at al-Udeid air base in Qatar and Russian officers at Hemeimeem air base.
The coalition said it contacted Russian commanders to set up a "de-confliction line" to prevent the fighting from worsening.
Russian Deputy Foreign Minister Sergei Ryabkov, in comments to Russian news agencies, compared the downing to "helping the terrorists that the U.S.is fighting against".