"If you believe that nuclear weapons deter and bring peace and stability, then we should welcome North Korea", Beatrice Fihn, executive director of the International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons, said mockingly.
The new policy was applauded by establishment Republican defense experts, including some who have shuddered at Trump's threats to use nuclear weapons against North Korea, but have anxious that he was insufficiently focused on Russia's nuclear modernization.
Jim Mattis became defense secretary this past year, he arrived at the Pentagon with reservations about the USA nuclear arsenal. "The Americans are shamelessly threatening Russian Federation with a new atomic weapon". It calls for two types of nuclear weapons not now in the arsenal.
Asked whether the two new nuclear weapons are needed to deter Russia, Defense Secretary Jim Mattis said February 2, "We are deterring nations that have spoken about using nuclear weapons".
The review sought to back up Mattis on how the US nuclear deterrent would be channeled in confronting Russian Federation and China, which are now viewed under the strategy as the main security challenges to the USA, replacing terrorism.
Moscow has called the new United States policy "bellicose" and "anti-Russian" and warned it might take responsive measures to boost its own security.
Fears of nuclear arms race despite US, Russian pledges
The document said the United States will develop for deployment a "low-yield" nuclear warhead for submarine-launched ballistic missiles.
The Associated Press reported in January on key elements of the USA nuclear review, based on a draft version of the document, including its endorsement of the Obama administration plan for fully modernizing the nuclear arsenal by building a new strategic bomber, a new land-based intercontinental ballistic missile and a new fleet of nuclear-armed ballistic missile submarines.
"I can't think of a secretary who so quickly visited all the nuclear forces", said Rob Soofer, deputy assistant secretary of defense for nuclear and missile-defense policy.
"In order to meet the central limits of the treaty, the United States developed and utilized conversion procedures in full compliance with its treaty obligations", it said.
However, the nonpartisan Congressional Budget Office has put the cost of modernizing the nuclear triad of bombers, land-based missiles and submarines through 2040 at $1.2 trillion.
Perry has also said adversaries could confuse the cruise missile the Pentagon is developing for a conventional missile. Most of that money would go to new generations of bombers and new submarines, and a rebuilding of the land-based nuclear missile force that still dots giant fields across the West. "Were Iran to decide to acquire nuclear weapons, pressures on other countries in the region to acquire their own nuclear weapons would increase", it said. We have plenty of low-yield weapons.
"Our tailored strategy for China is created to prevent Beijing from mistakenly concluding that it could secure an advantage through the limited use of its theater nuclear capabilities or that any use of nuclear weapons, however limited, is acceptable", it said.