The five actors, along with Dushyant Singh (a local travel agent) are accused of poaching the endangered animals at Jodhpur's Kankani village on the night of October 1-2, 1998.
Stargazers, media crews and security personnel swarmed the court premises and lined up along the two kilometre route from the court as the 52-year-old was whisked away in a Bolero police jeep to spend a night in jail.
Shortly after the sentence was pronounced on Thursday, Salman Khan was taken to Jodhpur Central Jail.
Salman, the main accused in the case and who was driving the vehicle that night, was also fined Rs 10,000 by CJM Dev Kumar Khatri.
# Salman Khan's sisters Alvira, Arpita and bodyguard Shera reaches Jodhpur court. Salman and other actors were present in the court at the time of the verdict. "We will now work to get the government challenge the acquittal of others", said Ramniwas, a member of the Bishnoi community.
Khan, regarded as the bad boy of Indian cinema, was taken into police custody and driven to jail after the sentencing amid chaotic scenes outside the court in Rajasthan state.
Khan spent a total of 18 days in prison in 1998, 2006 and 2007 in the poaching cases, but was freed on bail, the Press Trust of India news agency said.
Salman's counsel had on Friday moved a petition in the court for bail and suspension of sentence.
The moment people came to know that Khan has been convicted and the other accused have been acquitted, there was celebration as well as sadness.
The Jodhpur Chief Judicial Magistrate Court on March 25 under Jodhpur District Presiding Officer Devkumar Khatri had issued April 5 for the judgment in the 20-year-old case.
His next film, "Race 3", is an action thriller scheduled for release later in the year.
There were two more cases against Salman for killing two chinkaras (Indian Gazelle) but the actor was acquitted by the Rajasthan High Court in July 2016.