Sanders on Friday said Mr. Trump and Putin discussed the Mueller report briefly, in light of the completion of the investigation. The Trump administration has accused the Russians of preventing Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro from giving up power and fleeing the country.
The Robert Mueller investigation was mentioned, but only "very briefly", according Press Secretary Sarah Huckabee Sanders.
President Trump tweeted the conversation was "very good," adding "as I have always said, long before the Witch Hunt started, getting along with Russia, China, and everyone is a good thing, not a bad thing".
"So I think we're going to probably start up something very shortly between Russian Federation and ourselves maybe to start off, and I think China will be added down the road".
"Had a long and very good conversation with President Putin of Russia", Trump said in a post on Twitter, noting they had discussed trade, Venezuela, Ukraine, North Korea, nuclear arms and Special Counsel Robert Mueller's investigation of Russian meddling in the 2016 USA presidential campaign.
The 2011 New START treaty expires in February 2021 but can be extended for five years if both sides agree.
Sanders said Trump and Putin also discussed the possibility of extending a current nuclear agreement, or "starting a new one that includes China".
Late last month, the United States president indicated his intention to negotiate a major nuclear arms control deal with Russian Federation and China, saying such a treaty should include "all the weapons, all the warheads, all the missiles" in the countries' respective arsenals.
When the conversation turned to Venezuela, Sanders said Trump reiterated "the need for a peaceful transition".
Sanders also said they discussed trade and how it has increased between the two countries since Trump has come into office.
Mr Trump and Mr Putin last spoke informally at last December's G20 Summit in Buenos Aires, after Mr Trump cancelled the two leaders' official meeting. North Korean leader Kim Jong Un traveled to Russian Federation last week to meet with Putin.
Trump also raised with Putin the issue of getting North Korea to dismantle its nuclear weapons and ballistic missile programmes.
The Kremlin said Putin updated Trump on the Russian president's recent meeting with North Korean leader Kim Jong Un and emphasized that Ukraine's newly elected president needed to take steps toward resolving the conflict with Russian-backed rebels in eastern Ukraine.
Sanders said Trump mentioned several times "the need and importance of Russian Federation stepping up and continuing to put pressure on North Korea to denuclearize". The Kremlin said both leaders highlighted the need to pursue denuclearization of the region.
Todd Schnitt of Newsmax TV said on his show that it was clear Putin was not a friend of the United States.