The match will be played following the completion of the men's semifinal between Novak Djokovic and Dominic Thiem, which on Friday was suspended by rain in the third set.
The 28-year-old, who had never won a round at Roland Garros before this year, had three set points when she led 5-3 in the opener, but on the first lashed an easy volley well over the baseline with the court at her mercy.
After a rocky start which saw Ms Anisimova take out the first set 6-7 (7-4) in a tiebreak, Ms Barty came back strong to win the remaining two sets 6-3 6-3.
"Congratulations to you and your team, you gave me a lesson", Vondrousova said to Barty at the trophy presentation.
The rising star has already posted a career best performance at Roland-Garros by entering the last four, but will she be able to achieve even more, and is she capable of repeating Maria Sharapova's stunning success by winning a Grand Slam aged just 17?
Barty dominated the beginning of the first set only dropping a handful of points to lead 5-0 after less than 15 minutes of play.
"It's unbelievable. I played the flawless match today".
After nearly two years away, Barty was pulled back to the tour.
"She was pretty exhausted after yesterday's semi-final both mentally and physically". "I said previous year that I hope to get another chance in a Grand Slam final and hope to do better then, so tomorrow there is the chance".
Asked whether this felt like a major semifinal, Konta replied: "I mean, in terms of the surrounding and the occasion, probably not". Barty lost the opening set via a tiebreaker but managed to outclass her opponent in the final 2 sets.
Barty also rises to No.2 in the world, heights not reached for an Australian on the women's charts in the more than four decades since her idol and fellow Indigenous player Evonne Goolagong Cawley was in the top two. I think that's been the biggest thing - I haven't had one ounce of regret.
"This is just the start", Barty said in her victory speech.
The tension got the better of the Czech early on, as she double faulted to gift Barty two break points, before firing long to put her opponent 2-0 ahead. There were South American tournaments that I remember and I had good memories there. Vondrousova has not dropped a set in the tournament and can become the first teenager to win the French Open since Iva Majoli in 1997.
But she believes the momentum will serve her well against a player that's enjoyed a break-out season of her own, reaching the last-eight at Indian Wells and Rome and the final at Istanbul. She's won her first Grand Slam title on the Roland Garros clay and I wouldn't rule her out making a strong run at the All England Club in a few weeks' time.